Hello Clarity tutorial

In this tutorial, you learn how to use Clarity, Blockstack’s smart contracting language. Use this tutorial to get a quick introduction to Clarity and the default Blockstack test environment.

Before you begin (pre-requisites)
Task 1: Set up the test environment
Task 2: Review a simple Clarity program
Task 3: Initialize data-space and launch contracts
Task 4. Examine the SQLite database
Task 5: Execute a public function
Task 6: Spend tokens by registering a name

Before you begin (pre-requisites)
The Clarity language goes live in the next Stacks blockchain fork. Until the fork, you can run Clarity in a test environment. You run this test environment in a Docker container. Before you begin this tutorial, make sure you have Docker installed on your workstation.

If for some reason you don’t want to run the test environment with Docker, you can build and maintain a local environment. Instructions for downloading and building the environment are available in the blockstack/blockstack-core repository’s README file.
Task 1: Set up the test environment
Blockstack publishes the clarity-developer-preview image on Docker hub. A container built from this image contains sample programs, the Blockstack Core, and tools for working with them. In this task, you use Docker to pull and and run the image on your local workstation.
1. Pull the Blockstack core clarity-developer-preview image from Docker Hub.
 $ docker pull blockstack/blockstack-core:clarity-developer-preview
2. Start the Blockstack Core test environment with a Bash shell.
$ docker run -it -v $HOME/blockstack-dev-data:/data/ blockstack/blockstack-core:clarity-developer-preview bash

The launches a container with the Clarity test environment and opens a bash shell into the container. The -v flag creates a local $HOME/blockstack-dev-data directory in your workstation and mounts it at the /data directory inside the container. The shell opens into the src/blockstack-core directory. This directory contains the source for a core and includes Clarity contract samples you can run.
 3. List the contents of the sample-programs directory.

[email protected]:/src/blockstack-core# ls sample-programs/ names.clar tokens.clar
The sample programs directory contains two simple Clarity programs. Clarity code files have a .clar suffix.
4. Go ahead and display the contents of the tokens.clar program with the cat command.
[email protected]28600552694:/src/blockstack-core# cat sample-programs/tokens.clar
The next section gives you an introduction to the Clarity language by way of examining this program’s code.
Task 2: Review a simple Clarity program
If you haven’t already done so, use the cat or more command to display the tokens.clar file’s code. Clarity is designed for static analysis; it is not a compiled language and is not Turing complete. It language is a LISP-like language. LISP is an acronym for list processing.

The first line of the tokens.clar program contains a user-defined get-balance function.
(define (get-balance (account principal))
(default-to 0 (get balance (fetch-entry tokens (tuple (account account))))))

get-balance is a private function because it is constructed with the define call. To create public functions, you would use the define-public function. Public functions can be called from other contracts or even from the command line with the clarity-cli.

Notice the program is enclosed in () (parentheses) and each statement as well. The get-balance function takes an account argument of the special type principal. Principals represent a spending entity and are roughly equivalent to a Stacks address.

Along with the principal types, Clarity supports booleans, integers, and fixed length buffers. Variables are created via let binding but there is no support for mutating functions like set.

The next sequence of lines shows an if statement that allows you to set conditions for execution in the language..
(define (token-credit! (account principal) (tokens int))
(if (<= tokens 0)
(err "must move positive balance")
(let ((current-amount (get-balance account)))
(set-entry! tokens (tuple (account account))
(tuple (balance (+ tokens current-amount))))
(ok tokens)))))

Every smart contract has both a data space and code. The data space of a contract may only interact with that contract. This particular function is interacting with a map named tokens. The set-entry! function is a native function that sets the value associated with the input key to the inputted value in the tokens data map. Because set-entry! mutates data so it has an ! exclamation point; this is by convention in Clarity.

In the first token-transfer public function, you see that it calls the private get-balance function and passes it tx-sender. The tx-sender isa a globally defined variable that represents the the current principal.
(define-public (token-transfer (to principal) (amount int))
(let ((balance (get-balance tx-sender)))
(if (or (> amount balance) (<= amount 0))
(err "must transfer positive balance and possess funds")
(set-entry! tokens (tuple (account tx-sender))
(tuple (balance (- balance amount))))
(token-credit! to amount)))))

(define-public (mint! (amount int))
(let ((balance (get-balance tx-sender)))
(token-credit! tx-sender amount)))

(token-credit! 'SZ2J6ZY48GV1EZ5V2V5RB9MP66SW86PYKKQ9H6DPR 10000)
(token-credit! 'SM2J6ZY48GV1EZ5V2V5RB9MP66SW86PYKKQVX8X0G 300)

The final two lines of the program pass a principal, represented by a Stacks address, and an amount to the private user-defined token-credit function.

Smart contracts may call other smart contracts using a contract-call! function. This means that if a transaction invokes a function in a given smart contract, that function is able to make calls into other smart contracts on your behalf. The ability to read and do a static analysis of Clarity code allows clients to learn which functions a given smart contract will ever call. Good clients should always warn users about any potential side effects of a given transaction.

Take a moment to cat the contents of the names.clar file.
cat names.clar

Which tokens.clar function is being called?
Task 3: Initialize data-space and launch contracts
1. In this task, you interact with the the contracts using the clarity-cli command line.

Initialize a new db database in the /data/ directory
 #  clarity-cli initialize /data/db
Database created

You should see a message saying Database created. The command creates an SQLlite database. The database is available in the container and also in your workstation. In this tutorial, your workstation mount should at this point contain the $HOME/blockstack-dev-data/db directory.
2. Type check the names.clar contract.
 #  clarity-cli check sample-programs/names.clar /data/db

You should get an error:
Type check error. NoSuchContract("tokens")
This happens because the names.clar contract calls the tokens.clar contract, and that contract has not been created on the blockchain.

3.  Type check the tokens.clar contract, it should pass a check as it does not use the contract-call function:
 # clarity-cli check sample-programs/tokens.clar /data/db
Checks passed.
When the check command executes successfully and exits with the stand UNIX 0 exit code.
4. Launch the tokens.clar contract.
You use the launch command to instantiate a contract on the Stacks blockchain. If you have dependencies between contracts, for example names.clar is dependent on tokens.clar, you must launch the dependency first.
 # clarity-cli launch tokens sample-programs/tokens.clar /data/db
Contract initialized!

Once launched, you can execute the contract or a public method on the contract. Your development database has an instantiated tokens contract. If you were to close the container and restart it later with the same mount point and you wouldn’t need to relaunch that database; it persists until you remove it from your local drive.

5. Recheck the names.clar contract.
 # clarity-cli check sample-programs/names.clar /data/db

The program should pass validation because its dependency on tokens.clar is fulfilled.

6. Instantiate the names.clar contract as well.
# clarity-cli launch names sample-programs/names.clar /data/db
Task 4. Examine the SQLite database

The test environment uses a SQLite database to represent the blockchain. You initialized this database when you ran this earlier:
clarity-cli initialize /data/db
As you work the contracts, data is added to the db database because you pass this database as a parameter, for example:
clarity-cli launch tokens sample-programs/tokens.clar /data/db

The database exists on your local workstation and persists through restarts of the container. You can use this database to examine the effects of your Clarity programs. The tables in the SQLite database are the following:

While not required, you can install SQLite in your local environment and use it to examine the data associated with and impacted by your contract. For example, this what the maps_table contains after you initialize the tokens contract.
sqlite> select * from maps_table;

Task 5: Execute a public function
In this section, you use the public mint! function in the tokens contract to mint some new tokens.

1. Use the clarity_cli command to create a demo address.

# clarity-cli generate_address SP26CHZZ26Q25WDD1CFJYSED169PS9HTNX445XKDG

2. Add the address to your environment.


3. Get the current balance of your new address.

# echo "(get-balance '$DEMO_ADDRESS)" | clarity-cli eval tokens /data/db Program executed successfully! Output: 0

This command uses the private get-balance function in the tokens contract and pipes the result to the eval subcommand. The eval subcommand lets you evaluate both public and private functions of a contract in read-only mode.

4. Try minting some tokens and sending them to an address we’ll use for our demo.

# clarity-cli execute /data/db tokens mint! $DEMO_ADDRESS 100000

This executes the public mint! function defined in the tokens contract, sending 100000 tokens to you $DEMO_ADDRESS.

5. Use the clarity-cli eval command to check the result of this call.

# echo "(get-balance '$DEMO_ADDRESS)" | clarity-cli eval tokens /data/db Program executed successfully! Output: 100000
Task 6: Spend tokens by registering a name
Now, let’s register a name using the names.clar contract. Names are just integers in this sample contract, so you’ll register the name 10.

Compute the hash of the name we want to register.

You’ll salt the hash with the salt 8888:
 # echo "(hash160 (xor 10 8888))" | clarity-cli eval names /data/db
Program executed successfully! Output:

The value of the name hash is:
2. Preorder the name using the execute command:
# clarity-cli execute /data/db names preorder $DEMO_ADDRESS 0xb572fb1ce2e9665f1efd0994fe077b50c3a48fde 1000
Transaction executed and committed. Returned: 0
This executes the public preorder function defined in the names.clar contract. The function reserves a name by paying the name fee (in this case, 1000 tokens).

3. Check the demo address’ new balance:
# echo "(get-balance '$DEMO_ADDRESS)" | clarity-cli eval tokens /data/db
Program executed successfully! Output:

4. Register the name by executing the register function:
# clarity-cli execute /data/db names register $DEMO_ADDRESS \'$DEMO_ADDRESS 10 8888
Transaction executed and committed. Returned: 0clarity-cli execute /data/db names register $DEMO_ADDRESS \'$DEMO_ADDRESS 10 8888

5. Lookup the “owner address” for the name:

# echo "(get owner (fetch-entry name-map (tuple (name 10))))" | clarity-cli eval names /data/db Program executed successfully! Output: (some 'SP26CHZZ26Q25WDD1CFJYSED169PS9HTNX445XKDG)
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